You can refer to these theories as you research and consider the media’s effect on culture. Equally, technology company Apple has used advertising and public relations to attempt to become a symbol of innovation and nonconformity. Create an online video course, reach students across the globe, and earn money. Consumer Psychology (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 59–62. Media theories 2. This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Cultivation analysis projects involve a number of different areas for research, such as the differences in perception between heavy and light users of media. McLuhan’s other great achievement is the popularization of the concept of media studies. structuralism, including Lévi-Strauss. McLuhan spoke of a media-inspired “global village” at a time when Cold War paranoia was at its peak and the Vietnam War was a hotly debated subject. Scribd will begin operating the SlideShare business on December 1, 2020 Papacharissi, Zizi. Media Theories and their Relevance to Communication Practice. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. His supporters point to the hopes and achievements of digital technology and the utopian state that such innovations promise. Today, the deep rooting of media in the cultural consciousness means that media consumers need engage for only a few moments with a particular television program to understand that it is a news show, a comedy, or a reality show. Media theories have a variety of uses and applications. Media Theories. 1. These theories do not necessarily give an all-encompassing picture of media effects but rather work to illuminate a particular aspect of media influence. Uses and gratifications theories of media are often applied to contemporary media issues. Jansson-Boyd, Catherine. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Other theories focus on specific aspects of media influence, such as the spiral of silence theory’s focus on the power of the majority opinion or the symbolic interactionism theory’s exploration of shared cultural symbolism. Direct governmental control of mass media . The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films. This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. Before the mass media began taking an antismoking stance, smoking was considered a personal health issue. When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. Many of the theories discussed in this section were developed decades ago. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs. Despite—or perhaps because of—these controversies, McLuhan became a pop culture icon, mentioned frequently in the television sketch-comedy program Laugh-In and appearing as himself in Woody Allen’s film Annie Hall. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. While they may not necessarily be bad or harmful in and of themselves, they are quite influential on individual people, as well as society as a whole, which has led sociologists to refer to our culture as a “mediated culture”, in which media not only reflects culture, but creates it as well. Quinn Dombrowski – Weapons of mass destruction – CC BY-SA 2.0. Everyone is exposed to it, and it affects how we feel about everything, including products, people, events, and even ourselves, and influences our sense of what is and isn’t important. If you’d like to learn more about different aspects of the media, this course on outsmarting the mass media, and this course on media and public relations will take you deeper into this interesting (and relevant) topic.
  • Effects theory (Hypodermic Syringe, Innoculation) – what the media does to audiences
3. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. The Government may go to the step of punishing anyone who questions the state’s ideology. A thorough investigation as to the influence of mass media is a subject more fitting for a college dissertation, so our limited space today will only allow for a brief discussion, in which we will focus on three sociological perspectives of the role and influence of mass media. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Researchers found that voters who consumed the most media had generally already decided for which candidate to vote, while undecided voters generally turned to family and community members to help them decide. Examine the topic using at least two of the approaches discussed in this section. Do you think these theories are still relevant for modern mass media? Link. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. Media logic affects institutions as well as individuals. Despite his lack of scholarly diligence, McLuhan had a great deal of influence on media studies. This theory most commonly applies to analyses of television because of that medium’s uniquely pervasive, repetitive nature. Conducted in 1940, the study attempted to gauge the effects of political campaigns on voter choice. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. By using symbolic interactionist theory, researchers can look at the ways media affects a society’s shared symbols and, in turn, the influence of those symbols on the individual (Jansson-Boyd, 2010). feminist theories including bell hooks and Van Zoonen Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism, states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction. As of this date, Scribd will manage your SlideShare account and any content you may have on SlideShare, and Scribd's General Terms of Use and Privacy Policy will apply. During the early 1960s, English professor Marshall McLuhan wrote two books that had an enormous effect on the history of media studies. Mass media refers to any type of communication, be it written, spoken, or broadcast, that reaches a large audience. The Evolution of Traditional to New M... Normative/functionalist theories of press, People Media ( Media and Information Literacy for Grade 11), No public clipboards found for this slide. Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. . If you would like to learn more about this subject, this coarse on the basics of sociology and this article on the many different careers in Sociology will get you better acquainted with this topic. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium. “Uses and Gratifications,” 153–154. Explain the uses of various media effects theories. Stille, Alexander. Then, write a one-page essay about the topic you’ve selected. Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. Agenda-setting research traces public policy from its roots as an agenda through its promotion in the mass media and finally to its final form as a law or policy (Dearing & Rogers, 1996). This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media (Papacharissi). The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this.


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