The policy statements are designed towards making available to the Indian farmer, adequate quantities of seed of superior quality at the appropriate time and place and at an affordable price so as to meet the country’s food and nutritional security goals. Reduction in the supply of fire wood and increasing demand for fuel in the rural areas due to increase in population has further complicated the problem. This is testified by the success story of agricultural progress in Punjab Haryana and western part of Uttar Pradesh where over half of the cropped area is under irrigation! One can think of many disadvantages of low-technology practices, including traditional agriculture. But its use as such is limited because much of cow dung is used as kitchen fuel in the shape of dung cakes. The problem of small and fragmented holdings is more serious in densely populated and intensively cultivated states like Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar and eastern part of Uttar Pradesh where the average size of land holdings is less than one hectare and in certain parts it is less than even 0.5 hectare. Traditional farming Methods information. Power availability for carrying out various agricultural operations has been increased to reach a level of 14 kW per hectare in 2003-04 from only 0.3 kW per hectare in 1971-72. Unfortunately, good quality seeds are out of reach of the majority of farmers, especially small and marginal farmers mainly because of exorbitant prices of better seeds. Prohibited Content 3. Manures and fertilizers play the same role in relation to soils as good food in relation to body. Even at present there are lakhs of villages which are not well connected with main roads or with market centres. Storage facilities in the rural areas are either totally absent or grossly inadequate. However, it is often more sustainable and less polluting than similar industrial techniques. In this way the holdings become smaller and more fragmented with each passing generation. The increased use of these inputs has saved a lot of crops, especially the food crops from unnecessary wastage. Different tracts have different levels of fertility and are to be distributed accordingly. Most roads in the rural areas are Kutcha (bullock- cart roads) and become useless in the rainy season. The country has a potential of 650 million tonnes of rural and 160 lakh tonnes of urban compost which is not fully utilized at present. The Parse Committee estimated the post-harvest losses at 9.3 per cent of which nearly 6.6 per cent occurred due to poor storage conditions alone. Not Enough Agricultural Land. All India Rural Credit Survey Committee showed that in 1950-51 the share of money lenders stood at as high as 68.6 per cent of the total rural credit and in 1975-76 their share declined to 43 per cent of the credit needs of the farmers. The system recognises three kinds of generation, namely breeder, foundation and certified seeds. Pests, germs and weeds cause heavy loss to crops which amounted to about one third of the total field produce at the time of Independence. There is urgent need to mechanise the agricultural operations so that wastage of labour force is avoided and farming is made convenient and efficient. Under such circumstances, the farmer cannot concentrate on improvement. A large industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Another 19 per cent were small holdings (1-2 hectare) taking up 17.3 per cent of the total operated area. States having high percentage of net sown area like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh have holding size above the national average. The average yields of almost all the crops are among t e lowest in the world. Some progress has been made for mechanising agriculture in India after Independence. The utilization of this potential will solve the twin problem of disposal of waste and providing manure to the soil. Further it is shocking to note that a large proportion of 59 per cent holdings in 1990- 91 were marginal (below 1 hectare) accounting for 14.9 per cent of the total operated area. These markets generally introduce a system of competitive buying, help in eradicating malpractices, ensure the use of standardised weights and measures and evolve suitable machinery for settlement of disputes thereby ensuring that the pro­ducers are not subjected to exploitation and receive remunerative prices.


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