A fearful response to handling manifests itself in a variety of ways. 62, 337–347. Biologically, the shortest possible generation interval is the sum of age at sexual maturity and gestation length. Anim. Dairy Sci. Prod. Factors such as time, expense, and number of available recipients affect the extent to which a breeder decides to invest in MOET. The relationship of handling temperament with growth rate, rather than weight at a certain age, has also been investigated. Heritability estimates for dairy cattle milking temperament. The tests involve scoring the response of the animal as the experimenter moves toward her. Behav. Dairy Sci. Appl. However, it is also likely that the variability in estimates for temperament traits given the same name is partly due to differences in measuring protocols or recording method, or to breed differences. A reduction in phenotypic variation may also be expected through repeated testing of animals in a short period of time, as repeated handling reduces response intensity [as has been shown for flight speed (Burrow and Corbet, 2000; King et al., 2006)]. A number of studies have found a significant relationship between the measures. Genetic evaluations for these traits are made possible by the participation of dairy … doi: 10.1093/jhered/esg090, Hoppe, S., Brandt, H. R., Konig, S., Erhardt, G., and Gauly, M. (2010). (2009) reported that breeding programs that use young genomic bulls would have greater profit than those that rely on conventional progeny testing, provided that at least 20% of the inseminations were to genomic bulls that lacked daughter records. doi: 10.1071/AR99053, Burrow, H. M., and Dillon, R. D. (1997). (2014). Guidelines for Uniform Beef Improvement Programs, 9th Edn. The decrease in milk production as a result of heat stress is readily seen, but there are less immediate negative effects of heat stress such as reduced fertility. Moreover, there are often rather few genes that have a large effect on these polygenic traits, and many more that individually have a small effect. In addition, the dairy breed associations each compute their own selection … The availability of dense genome maps and rapid, increasingly affordable genotyping has altered the paradigm for application of molecular genetics in livestock breeding, for many traits of interest. Two full sibs therefore receive the same breeding value, and if this is high enough, they will both be selected to form part of the progeny test team. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2005.05.012, Nkrumah, J. D., Crews, D. H. Jr., Basarab, J. Sci. Chapter 2: Thermal stress in ruminants: Responses and strategies for alleviation. However, there is only limited evidence that temperament is associated with clinical health parameters. This requires estimates of phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances among all traits (these are also required to derive regressions or correlations usually used to quantify associations among traits). (1999) found that calm animals are less likely to be hospitalized in feedlots than excitable animals, and Reinhardt et al. In addition, most of the elite young males are closely related to the elite young females in the same population because both were created from the same donor dams in MOET and IVF programs. Sharma, J. S., and Khanna, A. S. (1980). The case for inclusion seems clearest for handling temperament in beef and dairy, but other traits require more research. Mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors are supersensitive to ethanol, cocaine and methamphetamine. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Dairy Sci. Objective within-breed selection usually requires knowledge of the traits affecting profitability (breeding goal traits) and their relative economic values, potential proxy traits on which to base selection (selection criteria) if breeding goal traits can not be measured directly (e.g., if they are expressed late in life, can only be measured post-mortem or are time-consuming and costly to measure), and estimates of the genetic and phenotypic variances and covariances among these traits. In the future, this could lead to bias in the GEBV of young bulls and heifers; therefore methods that account for bias attributable to genomic preselection should be investigated and incorporated into genetic evaluation programs. Glenske, K., Brandt, H., Prinzenberg, E.-M., Gauly, M., and Erhardt, G. (2010). (1988) and has been widely used by groups in Australia and elsewhere. Sci. J. Figure 1 illustrates the steps involved in prediction of genomic and conventional breeding values. Prod. Simm, G. (1998). Some genetic factors affecting temperament in Bos Taurus cattle. doi: 10.1017/ASC200696, Prayaga, K. C. (2003). Horm. Aust. In the event that progeny test programs were discontinued, … Animals may be excluded based on their raw score. There is a positive relationship between temperament and survival in the herd, such that calmer cows are less likely to be culled (Haile-Mariam et al., 2004; Sewalem et al., 2010). Growth rate or daily gain are likely to be more accurate assessments, as they obviously take into account variation in initial bodyweight. All young bulls that are considered for purchase by the major AI stud services are selected based on the results of genomic testing.


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