A Vermont native, he became active in Republican politics in the 1850s as a New York City lawyer. Born in an ...read more, Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893), the 19th president of the United States, won a controversial and fiercely disputed election against Samuel Tilden. The man who killed him expected the new President to pardon him. Widely regarded as Conkling’s protégé, Arthur worked with his mentor at the Republican National Convention of 1880 to secure the renomination of Grant for a third term as president. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Before he moved into the White House, Chester Arthur hired designer and stained-glass artist Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) to redecorate the state rooms. Chester Alan Arthur (October 5 th, 1829 – November 18 th, 1886) was a Stalwart and the the 21 st President of the United States. His political rise took place in the not-quite-squeaky-clean New York political machine, where he had a reputation for cronyism and allegedly demanded kickbacks from workers to support the Republican Party. Chester Arthur was one of five Presidents who was never elected — he took office after James Garfield's assassination and served nearly a full term. Black Friday Sale! During Arthur’s final year as president, the United States acquired a naval coaling station at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. One year later, he successfully represented Lizzie Jennings, an African American, in her suit against a Brooklyn streetcar company for forcing her off a car reserved for whites. The act also forbade workers from being fired for political reasons and prohibited compulsory political donations from employees. Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician and the 21st President of the United States.Before becoming president, he was most noted as the Collector of Customs for the port of New York, a job he got from his political friendships.Arthur was the first President of the United States to take oath of office at his own house. He is the only president to date who served two nonconsecutive terms, and also the only Democratic president to win election during the period of Republican ...read more, Stephen A. Douglas (1813-1861) was a U.S. politician, leader of the Democratic Party, and orator who espoused the cause of popular sovereignty in relation to the issue of slavery in the territories before the American Civil War (1861-1865). When the convention deadlocked between the conservative Stalwart and liberal Half-Breed factions, delegates turned to dark-horse candidate James A. Garfield, and Arthur was nominated vice president as a conciliatory gesture to Conkling and the Stalwarts. Arthur took the presidential oath on September 19, 1881, amid widespread belief that he, a spoilsman with no experience in shaping public policy, was unworthy of the office to which he had now tragically acceded. After the war was over, he went on to become an influential member of Senator Roscoe Conkling’s political wing in the Republican Party. Commanding widespread support from the American people, who saw Garfield’s assassination as a product of the corrupt spoils system, the Pendleton Act at last made a reality of civil-service reform, creating a merit-based system of appointment and promotion for a limited number of specified offices. Instead, the Republicans chose Secretary of State James Blaine as their presidential nominee. While in office, Arthur rose above partisanship and in 1883 signed the Pendleton Act, which required government jobs to be distributed based on merit. In 1855, he successfully represented Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1830-1901), a black woman who had been denied a seat on a Manhattan streetcar due to her race. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Key events in the life of Chester A. Arthur. His Baptist minister father, William Arthur, hailed from Ireland, and his mother, Malvina Stone Arthur, was from Vermont. Throughout his long career, he consistently kept the interests of black workers at the forefront of the racial agenda. After exiting the White House in March 1885, Arthur returned to New York City to resume his legal career. After graduating in 1848 from Union College in Schenectady, New York, where he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Arthur studied law and simultaneously taught school; he was admitted to the New York bar in 1854 and joined a law firm in New York City. As president, he confounded his critics and dismayed many of his friends among the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party by supporting the Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883), which provided for the open appointment and promotion of federal employees based on merit rather than patronage.

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