This requirement for pumping an oxygen-containing gas into the liquid is necessitated because the transportation of gas across the liquid-air boundary of a large volume of wine in the vat is not sufficient for purposes of maintaining a viable bacterial culture. This causes the multidirectional mixing as a result of the interaction of the two circulation patterns. In accordance with the process of the invention, the naturally occurring resident bacteria present in an unpreserved wine is utilized to initiate the fermentation process. This return of the ethanol and/or acetic acid to the wine with the vessel 12 is accomplished by the use of the condenser 84. oxides of Mo, V, Nb and Pd, allows selectivities to acetic The interface between the housings and the pipe surfaces are sealed against fluid leakage. chemical can claim the varied feedstocks and production This process step is typically carried out by cooling the exhaust gases to a temperature sufficient enough to condense the ethanol and/or acetic acid vapors and/or entrained liquid out of the exhaust gas. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein said dispersal means comprises a plurality of substantially planar members extending out from said receptacle. maintaining a high carbonylation rate. Furthermore, the potential impact arising from the use of selected AAB is described. Overcoming the acetification constraints is a main goal in order to facilitate innovation in submerged fermentation and to create new industry-challenging perspectives. These pipes 70 are hollow with open oppsite ends. Furthermore, both of the plates 20 and 22 are provided with substantially coaxial apertures 26 and 28 which provide for a substantially coaxial passageway through the impeller 16 in combination with the open area 24. The ethanol and/or acetic acid is converted back into the liquid state, passes out of the condenser 84 to a return line 88 which delivers this liquid to the vessel 12 through a return line branch 90. For illustratove purposes, the pulley 54 may have a diameter of 150 millimeters with the pulley 52 having a diameter of 300 millimeters. This is achieved not only by the aeration but by the mixing of the liquid in the fermentator. The wine becomes substantially saturated with the air after the lapse of a short period of time after the aeration is initiated. methanol carbonylation technology. This feature allows the use of low The diameter of plate 22 is illustrated as less than that of plate 20. process is claimed to be economical for 50 000-100 000 It has been found that if the wine is allowed to be heated above a certain temperature that the continued growth of the bacteria will be impaired. The apparatus and process of the invention can be utilized for varying quantities of wine by varying the revolutions per minute of the impeller 16 until a first calculated period of time is achieved from about four to six days or any other desired time period, and a second calculated period of time of about 24 hours, or other desired period of time is achieved. Thus in accordance with the process of the invention the wine is maintained at a temperature less than or equal to about 35° C. This step of maintaining the temperature of the wine can be initiated when the temperature of the wine begins to increase. Formed about the aperture 28 of the plate 22 are a plurality of bolt holes, generally indicated at 30, for use in securing this plate 22 to a mechanism for rotating the impeller 16. As the concentration of the ethanol in the wine decreases the concentration of the ethanol in the exhaust gases correspondingly decreases. Furthermore, these types of bacteria are also highly temperature sensitive, which affects their productivity and the coversion of ethanol to acetic acid. All of these This concentration level can be determined by analyzing the exhaust gas passing through the line 86. This second period of time is again preferably when the overall concentration of the ethanol in the wine is equal to about 0.3 volume percent. carbonylation plant in 1960 using cobalt iodide as a However, methanol carbonylation has become the The use of the bubble column reactor Each heat exchange unit 68 includes a multiplicity of pipes 70. corrosive environment. The Cativa process uses The apparatus of claim 3 wherein said temperature is less than about 10° C. 5. As will be described herein, air is directed into this open area 24. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said temperature regulating means comprises four heat-transfer means, each of which, are positioned radially inward and adjacent one of said planar members for cooling said composition to maintain said desired temperature. In accordance with this illustrative embodiment, the 6000 additional liters of wine will have reached this point after about 24 hours. As already discussed, this oxidation is an exothermic reaction which begins to heat the wine in the vessel 12. alkane oxidation will be built in the future. In 2001, Sabic announced its intention to build a 30,000 Examples of presently available commercial type fermentators are disclosed in U.S. Pat. It should be noted that these two described illustrative embodiments are dependent upon the operational parameters described herein for the apparatus 10. The apparatus 10 further includes a condenser 84 which is interconnected fluidally to the vessel 12 by a number of feed lines (indicated generally at 86 and 90). partial pressure. Referring now to FIG. The establishment and production of this foam is highly undesirable since it impairs the overall quality of the produced acetic acid liquid, and impairs the overall efficiency of the fermentating process. This is due to the presence of areas of low circulation found outside the upperly spiralling circulation area of the wine. Selectivity to factors combine to allow plants to increase their capacity at As described above, this fermentation process is very exothermic. concentrations, permitting a dramatic reduction in water Concurrently or subsequent to the activation of the impeller 16, the compressor 62 is activated. This involves activating the motor 56 which, through the pulleys 52 and 54, rotates the impeller 16 at a desired 1000 rpms. However, it has now been determined that the overall characteristics of the final fermented product, in this case vinegra, is affected by this loss of the ethanol and/or acetic acid. 2,997,424, issued to Mayer; 3,014,804, issued to ELs et al; 3,252,870, issued to Braun et al; 3,445,245, issued to Ebner; 3,531,373, issued to Eder; 3,681,200 issued to Ridgway; and 4,569,845 issued to Nodes. The AO Plus technology was achieved in part The process of the invention is initiated by activating the operation of the aeration and circulation of the wine in the vessel 12. Diversa. The now condensed out ethanol and acetic acid is returned to the wine in the vessel 12 through the return line branch 90. The spiral of the pipe compatibly conforms to the spiralling movement of the wine created by the rotating impeller aerator. That is, the additional wine is added into the vessel 12 in such a manner that the total wine in the vessel 12 will remain substantially saturated with the air and be at a temperature of less than or equal to about 35° C. After the additional wine has been introduced into the vessel 12, a second calculated period of time is allowed to transpire.


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